Political system of Russia.

The political system established by the Constitution of 1993 provides the president with substantial superiority over other branches of the state. The president is elected for a term of four years by the citizens of the Russian Federation on the basis of general, equal and direct vote by the secret ballot. (In December 2008 the term was extended to 6 years. However the new term will be applied to the next elected president.) No-one may hold the office for more than two terms in succession. A candidate for the President of the Russian Federation can be nominated by a political party or by the candidate personally. In the later case the candidate must have an initiative group of 500 supporters.

Russian law restricts the amount of the candidate's expenditures for the election campaign. At present no more than RUR 400 million (around USD13 million), or RUR 500 million (around USD16 million) in case of a two round election, can be spent. A candidate cannot accept money for financing his or her campaign from foreign or international organisations or individuals, persons without citizenship, minors, domestic companies with foreign shareholders, charities and State or municipal bodies. A candidate, who receives more than one half of the votes is considered elected. If no candidate is elected in the first round, the Central Election Commission sets the second round of election for the two candidates who received the greatest number of votes. A candidate who received the greater number of voters in the second round as compared with the number of votes cast for another candidate is considered elected, provided that the number of votes cast for this candidate is greater than the number of votes cast against all candidates.

The Federal Assembly, the Parliament of the Russian Federation, is the supreme legislative body of the Russian Federation. The Federal Assembly consists of two chambers, the Federation Council and the State Duma. The State Duma is elected for a term of four years. (In December 2008 the term was extended to 5 years.) It consists of 450 deputies. From 2007 all deputies are elected in proportion to the number of votes cast for the lists of candidates nominated by political parties. The Federation Council consists of two representatives from each Subject of the Federation, one from the representative and one from the executive bodies of the Subject of the Federation.

Deputies to the Federation Council and deputies to the State Duma possess immunity throughout their term in office. A deputy may not be detained, arrested or searched except when detained in the act of perpetrating a crime, and may not be subject to personal search except when such search is authorised by law to ensure safety of other people. The question of stripping a deputy of immunity is decided on the recommendation of the Prosecutor-General of the Russian Federation by the corresponding chamber of the Federal Assembly.

The Government consists of the Chairman of the Government, Deputy Chairman of the Government and federal ministers. The chairman is appointed by the president with consent of the State Duma. If the State Duma thrice rejects candidates for the Chairman of the Government nominated by the president, the president appoints a Chairman of the Government, dissolves the State Duma and calls a new election.

The Prosecutor's Office of the Russian Federation is a single centralised system in which lower prosecutors are subordinated to higher prosecutors and the Prosecutor-General. The Prosecutor-General is appointed to the post and relieved from it by the Federation Council on nomination by the President. Prosecutors are appointed by the Prosecutor-General.