Patents.

Rights on inventions, utility models and industrial designs are protected. A patent certifies the priority, the authorship and the exclusive right to the invention, utility model or industrial design.

The application for the grant of a patent for an invention, utility model or industrial design must be filed with the Federal Service for Intellectual Property, Patents and Trademarks (Rospatent). Communication with the Rospatent may be carried out through a patent attorney, registered with the Rospatent or the patent owner himself. Individuals with permanent residence outside the Russian Federation, or foreign legal entities or their patent attorneys, normally deal with the Rospatent through patent attorneys.

A technical solution in any area, relating to a product (for instance a device, substance, micro-organism strain, cell culture of plants or animals) or process (process of affecting a material object using material means) is protected as an invention if it is new, involves an inventive step and is industrially applicable. An invention is deemed new if it is not anticipated by prior art. An invention involves an inventive step if, having regard to the state of the art, it is not obvious to a person skilled in the art. An invention is deemed industrially applicable if it can be used in industry, agriculture, public health and other sectors of the economy.

The term of an invention patent is 20 years from the date of receipt of the application by the Rospatent.

A technical solution relating to a device is protected as a utility model if it is new and industrially applicable. The term of a utility model patent is ten years from the date of receipt of the application by Rospatent. The term may be extended by Rospatent at the request of the patent owner for a period not exceeding three years.

An artistic-design presentation of an article that defines its outward appearance is protected as an industrial design. An industrial design is granted protection if it is new and original. The term of an industrial design patent is 15 years from the date of receipt of the application by Rospatent. The term of an industrial design patent may be extended for