Russia: State structure.

Russia is a federation with capital in Moscow (population - approximately 12 million).

It used to consist of 89 Subjects of the Federation, which number is now reduced to 83. There are 46 oblasts, 21 republics, 4 autonomous okrugs, 9 krais, 2 federal cities, and 1 autonomous oblast. These Subjects of the Federation (Regions) are deemed to have equal political rights but they are not equal in area, population or economic development.

They are (administrative divisions have the same names as their administrative centres, exceptions have the administrative centre name following in parentheses):

Oblasts: Amur (capital - Blagoveshchensk), Arkhangelsk, Astrakhan, Belgorod, Bryansk, Chelyabinsk, Irkutsk, Ivanovo, Kaliningrad, Kaluga, Kemerovo, Kirov, Kostroma, Kurgan, Kursk, Leningrad, Lipetsk, Magadan, Moscow, Murmansk, Nizhniy Novgorod, Novgorod, Novosibirsk, Omsk, Orenburg, Orel, Penza, Pskov, Rostov, Ryazan, Sakhalin (capital - Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk), Samara, Saratov, Smolensk, Sverdlovsk (capital - Yekaterinburg), Tambov, Tomsk, Tula, Tver, Tyumen, Ulyanovsk, Vladimir, Volgograd, Vologda, Voronezh, Yaroslavl;

Republics: Adygeya (capital - Maykop), Altay (capital - Gorno-Altaysk), Bashkortostan (capital - Ufa), Buryatiya (capital - Ulan-Ude), Chechnya (capital - Groznyy), Chuvashiya (capital - Cheboksary), Dagestan (capital - Makhachkala), Ingushetiya (capital - Magas), Kabardino-Balkariya (capital - Nalchik), Kalmykiya (capital - Elista), Karachayevo-Cherkesiya (capital - Cherkessk), Kareliya (capital - Petrozavodsk), Khakasiya (capital - Abakan), Komi (capital - Syktyvkar), Mariy-El (capital - Yoshkar-Ola), Mordoviya (capital - Saransk), Sakha [Yakutiya] (capital - Yakutsk), North Ossetia - Alaniya (capital - Vladikavkaz), Tatarstan (capital - Kazan), Tyva (capital - Kyzyl), Udmurtiya (capital - Izhevsk);

Autonomous okrugs: Chukotka (capital - Anadyr), Khanty-Mansi (Khanty-Mansiysk), Nenets (capital - Naryan-Mar), Yamalo-Nenets (capital - Salekhard);

Krais: Altay (capital - Barnaul), Kamchatskiy (capital - Petropavlovsk-Kamchatskiy), Khabarovsk, Krasnodar, Krasnoyarsk, Perm, Primorskiy (capital - Vladivostok), Stavropol, Zabaykalsk (capital - Chita);

Federal cities: Moscow, Saint Petersburg;

Autonomous oblast: Yevrey [Jewish] (capital - Birobidzhan).

Subjects of the Federation have their legislatures and governments, who act within the competence determined by the Constitution and, in some cases, an agreement between the Federation and the region. It is deemed that outside of the jurisdiction of the Federation and the joint jurisdiction of the Federation and the Subjects of the Federation, the regions exercise the entire spectrum of state power. In reality most of the Russian laws are in the federal competence and as such have superiority over regional legal acts. Another complication of relations between the Federation and the Regions is the composition of the tax and budget systems. At the moment the majority of regions receive financial assistance from the federal budget.

There are over 24,000 municipalities in Russia. Structure of a municipal government is determined by the regional legislation under the legal framework established by the federal laws and include a legislative body at the local level.